Ellen Crafts Escape from Slavery (History Speaks: Picture Books Plus Readers Theater)

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The aliens can morph and he spends most of the time I think as a hat. He can read the thoughts of the human while his in on the head. He can also read the dictionary to learn English. I read this book like 5 years ago kids are playing a video game as a fighter jet but little do they know that it is actually a test to see how capable they are my pilot ink an old man Texas children and trains them different game like scenarios to test them but he used to be a bodyguard for the really rich and the rich people were out able to live out in nature cuz the world was basically ruined but you was fired and then put behind a wall with the rest of the population to get revenge he came up with train these kids and putting them to Jets.

Looking for a book that starts with two kids that are friends, waking up as their characters from a game and having to go on a quest to go back to their world. Book is based off a game. It's a fiction book and I read it about years ago. Looking for a paperback I read in actually a correctional institute. It was a black cover with the title written in a deep, almost neon purple. I wanna say it was fiction with hints of truth and was at least 10yrs old, when I got it in I would love to re-read it AND I believe I got this book by requesting "Way of The Peaceful Warrior" - as they try to find the best match or at least the same category - IF they don't have the exact book you want.

All I recall is it had a witch, a boy travelling through snow storm? Would appreciate any help with this. Looking for a science fiction book. Published before There are robot bees, hornets or wasps or something like that, and the main female protagonist is by a river at the beginning. I think the robot is warning her to go home or a sign she needs to?

Hi, I'm looking for a book I read in the ealry 80's. It was set in the 's or early 's. They are poor and I think Emily works in a thread store. Hi looking for a book about a young boy and his old sister who both live with their grandmother. The older sister takes the Yong boy on a train to visit the boys teacher and her dog. I can't remember the title, so any help would be appreciated. I remember the ending of a short story, the man drives to the edge of town where people werent supposed to go only to realize his town is a computer simulation.

Thought it was by Stephen king or his alias? Looking for book about an earl named EDwin, I think. His wife dies and he needs an heir, he marries the girl on other side of the river as her mother is a known breeder, and she gives him a child. But he dies and she goes to king henry's court with her sister and her husband. Anne Boleyn is very jealous. What is the name of this book?? It must have been a fairly known author as most of my books were.

Looking for a murder thriller novel about a murder of man. First chapter is about a monk who steals a religious artefact - the letter from Christ from the Vatican to save it from being destroyed. Then in the present day a man is murdered in his study.

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His wife with dementia is blamed and arrested with the motive of finding out he was having an affair with a colleague called Lily I think. His daughter and neighbours who is a lawyer work to free her mother and find out who the real murder is. They realise he was murdered because he had the religious artefact and had told his 4 closest friends about it- giving it to lily to keep safe. Lily speaks to an unknown person who wants her to sell it to him but in stead he kidnaps her and locks her in a room in his warehouse.

During the murder the neighbours were on a cruise and a burglar who had fitted their car with a tracking device was in the house and saw the man who actually murdered him. He used this a bargain to get less time when he was arrested for burglary. It turns out to be Charles the mans friend who has kidnapped lily and the daughter who he loved. He murdered the man because he wanted to return it to the Vatican but Charles wanted it for his collection.

The boy used to sneak into her room at night and I remember one night he caught her wearing his football jersey. I am looking for a book that I read as a teen. Earth had been invaded by alien creatures who took people as slaves. The main character was a boy who was training as a boxer to win a contest. The winner got the privilege to become slave to these creatures. He was supposed to learn about them. I believe he escaped at the end. I believe it was part of a series. Keep in mind though I read it a long time ago. If anyone knows the name please let me know.

I'm looking for a book from , most likely from , about decorating with collections. Non-fiction, hard-back, photos depicting treasures and collections and rooms with displayed collections on the cover. In the early 70's I lived in Anderson, Indiana and there was a bookmobile that came around our neighborhood when I was around I had a great deal of interest in it and would like to find it. I'm not sure of the author, but I don't remember seeing "Home and Garden" or "House Beautiful" titles on the book.

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She goes out and trips on a mud puddle. Anyone know the name? Fiction book, from the late 80s or early 90s. About a pair of step siblings who have a secret affair of hook ups. Each chapter changes to their point of view. They began having an affair after their parents wedding. They carry on, off and on throughout the year.

Later it turns out that their parents are breaking up because the husband is cheating with another woman.

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Somewhere in the middle of the book, the young girl is in a play and the boy gives a white rose after the show, which she finds sweet. But after he bluntly says that the lead actress was better, to which she is offended. The book has a blue cover and has an elephant on it and a girl feeding it buns. One of the stories is about this escaped elephant and the girl uses a trail of buns to lure it home.

There is also another story about a boy who leaves his Scout meeting in the evening to go home but gets lost in the fog. In my s elementary school library, science fiction. Boy living with his uncle? On a hillside in remote Montana? Curious, he runs to see. Something scary emerges. Oh no! Taken up. Actually they are very kind and advanced and they have children his age. He now has friends. They are all doing fine, but the horse gets sick! We will take you back to the ranch to heal your horse, but you will never see us again. Big inner emotional conflict.

Goodbye friends. Drop him off. Uncle has left died? Horse dies. All alone. But wait And you can come back to the stars with us. The emotional intensity of this simplistic and manipulative space saga made me physically ill for days. They become friends despite their differences. The boy helps the angel get better. There is a war going on between earth and heaven. I think the boy or angels name was Ferron. Does anyone know the Name of this book? Need to find the title of this book. Patron is looking for an old book about 2 children that witness a murder by a blue bearded man.

The man says a prayer with the word Temple in it. There was this crazy book I read last year about a girl who had a perfect life. She was in band, had great grades, and a perfect boyfriend. But her world was turned upside down when she found out she had absorbed her twin in the womb. She realized her twin was completely opposite of her, and would take over her consciousness at night to hook up with the bad boy. Eventually she started leaving notes for the perfect twin to find in the morning.

After many other crazy things happen, we find out the character has a heart problem, which she blames on her sister's heart being weak, and she ends up going to the hospital to get a new heart. Does this help anyone? I'm dying to find this book again. This book was along the lines of something by Judy Blume or Beverly Cleary. About a young boy who started out as a pain but who grew up. I specifically remember him coming home from school to an empty house, practicing his trombone, then having an afterschool snack which was portion controlled because he was pudgy and wanted to lose weight.

I think he had trouble making friends, and that his mom being at work rather than home with him was a new thing. One specific event is when the teen boy is dared to eat a scorpion, and he does, but the scorpion turns out to be an energy bar of sorts, as the scorpion was an illusion. Please help, the only search results are just dog books or Christian books. There is a book and unfortunately many have the same title The Night Before Christmas.

Except this one had rich art color and beautiful art work like no other. It is the one I had when in the late 50's to 60's. It had a hard cover. I've been searching for years for it. I also wanted to get my hands on the Dick and Jane primers but saw the price of those and gave up. The complete 7 or 8 book series with navy blue cloth under the book cover by Jacques Cousteau Sharks, Whales, etc. Awesome collection. A thriller novel about a lady named Marrie who kills two rich men she marries and then gets married to a third men. Meanwhile a cop gets suspicious about her and tries to find the secrets she has been been hiding all along.

He also fears that the woman will try to kill her third husband as well. But the cunning woman manages to kill the cop as well and before he dies, she tells him that her current husband is her childhood love and she would never even dream about doing him any harm let alone kill him. A Warlock's innocent wife and daughter were murdered as witches. He takes revenge by killing those responsible.

Revenge killings continue for the next three generations. It was a soft back book. I'm have been trying to remember a book for about 10 years now. When I was in the 6 grade their was a book I read about a young boy was playing outside then he is sucked up in a storm and is transferred to a different world where he lands in a red barren land and eventually finds trees and food. Basically he is surviving in this new world trying to go back. It's one of those books where your memory even remembers the smell of the library and the book.

Its almost like a kid version of John Carter. Nelsongllrd yahoo. Form their own housecleaning business. One has a child and wants to be an artist; she cleans for an artist. One is quite untidy and lives on a barge. I forget the third woman. Same author also wrote a novel about a woman who is a potter and makes tea sets until convinced to put her big pieces on the market. Looking for a book that is fairly new about 2 millionaire men who are into BDSM and run a company together save a female employee who is being abused by her boyfriend than the three of them have a relationship together and she gets kidnapped and tortured and they save her again than 1 of the men decides he needs to be punished for her getting kidnapped and hires a guy to whip him and rapes him without permission.

Anyone know the author or the name of the books? I think there are 2 or 3 books to this story. Looking for a children's book of a kind raven who finds magical dust and gives it all away to his animal friends. The book was written and beautifully illustrated by the same person, a lady writer I think. It would have come out about years ago. Anyone out there who'd know it? Filmstar Nicky goes missing. Girlfriend tries to find him. He is writing a screen play. He dies at the end because he falls into an empty swimming pool. I read this book over 10 years ago. It is a historical romance about two sisters who through unfortunate circumstances are shipped to Australia.

One sister was convicted of murdering her rapist and the other was considered mad. The story tells of each sister's journey back to each other. I've been searching for what feels like forever. I thought it was called Under a Southern Sky. The title may be similar.

Any input would be appreciated. It had like a blue person on the cover and was all blue hardcover. The story was based in a little bit older times like early England kings and Queens and the characters were likable and interesting as the story goes on the main guy is confronted with basically himself who is an evil version of himself and he chases him into alternate realities.

It was something like spiral or ugh on the tip of my brain but can't remember. This was a book I read as a child, and was a seed in me developing my faith. Talking late 70's, early 80's. It concerned a boy who goes to a Christian youth group. His parents are splitting up. I remember him staying off school, been able to have a bed on the sofa, watch tv and having ice cream because he had a sore throat.

The youth leader spoke about our body been like glove, and when you take your hand out of the glove then it's empty, illustrating the soul.

Ellen Craft's escape from slavery - Morton Public Library District

He gave another talk about prayer, holding up a telephone which wasn't connected, this made the kids laugh. The boy went to a safari park with his dad, on one of the days when he was allowed to see him. He tried to run away from home, but then his Dad brought him back and later on he stops his sister from running into the road and getting hit by a car, and this was used as an example of why this was where he was meant to be. If anyone could provide the name of this book I would be delighted, as it meant so much to me growing up.

Boy runs away from home because he is about to turn 18 and his parents want to send him to the death camp where they derange his body. In this town your parents are authorized to let you live or send you away where they take off your body parts and give them to other people who need them. This boy finds out his parents signed the papers for him to be deranged and he ran away. I remember he had a little sister also. He ran away and found a new born on a front door steps so he took the baby with him and went to a school and hid in the restroom.

It was a book that depicted someone's life for real where he, her younger sister and mother had to hide lights n matches then one day police are at the house and discover what they call blue murder. I read the first few books in a series about 10 years ago. It was a bout a young teenager who lived with her grandmother and had visions and could see ghosts. They had a property helper who was a young man that could talk to animals and see the world through their eyes.

He had a companion that I think was a hawk and was a romantic interest of hers. One of the books also involved a medieval festival and fencing and another involved a crystal ball. I have 2. First is a detective novel that I remember nothing about except a part in the story where the detective and his partner enter an apartment that's been completely destroyed and a man bursts out of the bathroom i believe , high on something, wearing only his underwear and screaming about "krokodilos!

The second is a children's series I read in elementary probably first or second grade, so ish, the seres is about a dog and I really want to say that he's a basset hound or a beagle, and i have the image in my mind of him wearing a red cap on the front of the book but im trusting 23 year memory here lol, i know he waits for his humans to leave as theyre not part of the story, and he meets his other dog friends at the fence I know there's a poodle involved and I really don't remember what the story lines are, a friend of mine asked about them as she remembers her sand I loving them and she wanted them for her son.

If anyone knows either of these from their very very vague descriptions that would be awesome! I read a book in the 80s about a girl named Abigail who sees a? Of a girl who was hung during witch trials in s. I thought it was called The Presence but I cant find that title anywhere. It was a book about a cat called Daisy written in verse with illustrations.

I am looking for a book for my mother. She described it to me as an antique collector receives a tapestry that has some kind of code stitched into the tapestry. He and another woman, possibly a love interest or an assistant realize that it's some kind of map and that others are trying to track it down.

She read this book in a time where she was super into Mary Higgins Clark, J. Robb, Nora Roberts, Iris Johannson, etc. I'm looking for a Golden Book A children's book about a guy who travels through the woods at night when a storm blows up. He seeks refuge in a house and there's a spirit or a monster in the chimney that will come out if he lights a fire there maybe? The artwork is limited to blue, black, and white only. The title or name of the monster may have the word "bones" in it. A picture book i loved as a child where a dog i think a chocolate lab digs his way to the other side of the world.

And the world had magic! I am trying to find a book with protagonist named 'Nat', I guess.

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Nathaniel or something like that. Maybe he was jew. He hooked up with the hippie wife of his professor. And then years later he comes back maybe he was in hiding, I do not remember to find that the professor and his wife were there no more. But, their daughter was there and she seems to have taken a liking to him.

He remembers having played with her when she was a toddler. I read this a long time ago, and then too, it was an old book. Hope somebody remembers it. I recall the title of the book as 'Sammy the Salmon', as yet I have not come up with an example from that period after searching the Internet. Most if not every page was illustrated along with a couple of lines of story text Sammy's underwater travel meeting various sea creatures etc.

Trying to remember the book where i remember part of it, its about a gifted child and they find out by them solving a puzzle by pointing where the piece goes, i believe before they are even able to talk, the older sibling finds out by showing a puzzle piece thats all white and they she? I'm looking for a children's book about a boy who found an airship when he was riding on his bicycle and explored it. The owner of the ship ended up taking him in an adventure to another world. Would have been published around Trying to find the title of a book I read just last year.

I thought it was called Wonderland, by a woman, fiction. It's about a woman's return to tour as a punk singer, her father is an avant guard artist who one time cut a train in half, she has a sister, she has several sexual escapades while on tour. There's a mesmerizing scene where she sings to an audience who is not paying attention but for one young woman, too young to remember this singer's first flirtation with fame.

Trying to find a teen sci fi novel about kids that can control fire with the use of special tech, because of their unique brains. I think it was published in the 90's. It's the first book in a series. I think one of the other books in the series is called changelings. I remember the sound the pyrokinetic ability makes is 'kreee'. That's about it Trying to find a series of books - western fiction for young boys published in the 60s, perhaps into early 70s as well. I remember that he had a palomino. Can't remember anything more. Ring any bells? Looking for a book, where a boy gets lost and a girl is trying to find him but is unable to.

Later, he ends up in her room and asks her to keep him a secret. Soon they both fall in love and the girl's parents get to that there is a boy in their daughter's room. Please help me figure out the book's name. My grandmother is looking for a book that she said was about a girl named pinky and her black cat. She said it was probably published in the 30s or 40s and that you were able to touch the cat's fur like today's tactile books. They were all centered around different girls and were all horror type stories for teenagers.

One included a girl receiving a chain letter that if she didn't repost it, she would die. She didn't repost it and ended up being killed.

Another included a girl that moved from the city to a farmhouse that was haunted the radio would turn on and marbles would roll across the floor. Looking for a book, murder mystery type A girl is found murdered by a river so they are searching for the murderer. She was sexually involved with an older man, I believe he was married and possibly a doctor so he is a suspect There is also heavy drug usage, like party drugs and there was a rave and the drug dealer is also a possible suspect. The book spills secrets that no one wanted to let to light before finding her body.

One chapter involved a stolen picnic basket from the young man's crush at her birthday party, brushing teeth with a twig, living off the land Title may have been Dan's Boy. A series about a girl who lives in a society where once you turn a certain age you transform into a perfect version of you and move to another city, but she chooses not to make the switch.

Book about a war survivor who tells her story , unknowingly, to the daughter of the child she had to give away. Looking for a book written in the mid s about a girl whose mother marries and moves them to the midwest. The girl thinks her stepfather is involved in the murder of a person whose body was found in a grain elevator. Ok so there are three kids who solve clues for this club that their parents were in. One of these three kids is a boy and the others are girls.

One of the girls is vegan and the other girl is the main character and is being taken cared by her grandpa who is also part of this club along with other adult club members cuz her parents died in a car accident but in reality this car accident wasnt an accident but done on purpouse? Looking for a book about a girl who goes with her dad who is a scientist that performs human-animal transplants and she then later finds out she was the first of his experiments when she was a baby.

I am looking for a book written in the late 80's early 90's about women playing soccer in New york I believe its called -Kicks, Still kicking or maybe kicking. She lives on the outskirts of town with her parents who are abusive and sometimes helps a man named I think Sand? Build a church in town.

Looking for a book from the 50's or 60's. A thick book about how children celebrate holidays possibly around the world but definitely in the US. I particularly remember a story about a little boy in New Orleans celebrating Mardi Gras. I remember him talking about eating dinner and his aunt putting butter across his whole piece of bread. In one of the books there's an epidemic, and then in another book there's a flooding Last time I saw it in the library it was around Girl was from the country, boy from the town.

I think the boy's name is Danny. This book was read in the s but we are uncertain of publication date. Any clues? Noah I'm looking for a book where there in a small town on a island and people who aren't good enough get sacrificed but really when they get sacrificed they go to a secret part of the island where they grow up learning magic. I am looking for a book. Where kids learn magic from older wizards they start out and potentate O sex in this cave which has a bunch of left and right turns this kid uses Accra names to get around and there's a crystal in the lunchroom where they have to use magic to get food from it one kid gets a soap bar and progress is to the next level and gets a green tunic and eventually they learn how to fly please tell me I'm not the only 1 that's ever read this book.

She was not at all attracted to him, but felt sorry for him. She much preferred the company of guys her age, college men. Once she went off to college, she had occasion to meet the WWII vet a number of times. As she got to know him better, she realized what a good and decent, kind and thoughtful man he was. Eventually, he returns to her and proposes. On the cover was a sketch of an old two-story house. The girls name MAY have been Rosemary.

Looking for a book about a young american girl who learned french from her french cousin, became a nurse, and during the war ended up parachuting into enemy territory. She had to go through rigid language training, because although she spoke French, they would know she was American. She was given a code for the person at a hotel, but that person never responded with the code, causing great discomfort. I can't remember any names associated with the book.

Something happens to her while she is in the well and she gains supernatural powers. She grows up and uses the powers to get revenge on the people who have wronged her in life. Some scenes are very graphic. She describes some people want to stay in the area as the soil is rich and good for farming. They struggle and were hungry, pushing a cart, had to take stuff off the cart, she is leaving behind her only 2 things she had- a book and a doll or something like that. It was about a dejected detective trying to solve a case about a Kurds.

I think he thought it was the from out of town music teacher side story was a girl falling in love w same susp3ct and wanting to move away w him. Looking for a well illustrated novel about a couple who adopt a stray dog in Europe I think it may be France. Dog had been turned out by original owner and comes. To the couples house in a small village. The dog comments on the guests who came to a cocktail party at his adoptive parents, pointing out how certain guest smell. The dog steals meat from the local butcher, etc. I think the book was written somewhere between and or so.

Illustrations were good and comical. I let someone borrow it, and wish I could get it back. Looking for a book I read a long time ago.

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There was a group of siblings separated or sold off to different families. The oldest daughter chops off her hair to pass of as a boy so she could stay with the youngest. One brother goes to a very abusive household. I believe one of the siblings gets involved with the Underground Railroad, but not positive. Looking for a book i read back in highschool its a fiction story.

It was about children who were sent to live with their grandmother somewhere in england or something like that. Guests check into a hotel and are assigned cats along with their rooms. I do not remember the name of the book and the story I remember is about a boy walking down a lane when he finds a bird with a broken leg or wing. He takes the bird home and takes care of it until it is well enough to release. My grandmother read to me from that book when I would stay with her and it was a number of years ago.

This was in the 50s and early 60s. Trying to remember the name of a book we read in elementary school. The plot is kind of like space jam for football except that there is no Jordan. A misfit high school football team is mistakenly taken to outer space by a group to compete against another team. The other team is coached by a professional coach from earth but the team is made up of robots.

With no coach, the HS team is coached by the head cheerleader. Any help is appreciated. I read a book in Brazil when I was maybe It was a story of young travelers, hitchhiking, most likely one was Jewish army age to enlist in the Israeli army. It was a story of a few young people the story was in America soil each had its own issues and things to come to terms with. I loved it.

No idea of the name of the book or anything. It left a huge impression with. I read a book in Brazil, most likely translated from English about young travelers, hitchhikers, one Jewish army age, I believe all happened in USA. A book about a Mexican girl who likes to collage and is forced to move. On the first day of school, she meets a fat blonde with one dimple that is trying to be nice to her but is mean to the blonde.

That's as far as I read and can't find this book anywhere. Does anyone know what it's called? A 's book with the word "Mission" in the title about Jesus travelling forward in time and ending up in a hospital in New York in modern times. The author's first name was Charles, I believe.

A book about a man or maybe 2? Jessie Daniel Ames, a white leader of the Texas Commission on Interracial Cooperation, speaks to white women's organizations across the state and lobbies legislators on behalf of a school for delinquent black girls. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel finally signs the appropriations bill for construction of the school.

Jane Y. During her term, she recovers and restores an original copy of the Texas Declaration of Independence. The League of Women Voters and other women's groups in Texas win a state statute giving wives authority to dispose of community property. Artemisia Bowden, a black woman, becomes president of St. Philip's College in San Antonio and thus Texas's first female college president. Black Austin women found the Community Welfare Association and later organize a neighborhood playground and a nursery school and help found the Carver Branch Library.

The Dallas Business and Professional Women's Club estimates that Dallas women are working in more than occupations, trades, and professions. She later writes plays produced for the stage and publishes two novels, including Mexican Village , which is made into the Hollywood film Sombrero. Lydia Mendoza, Houston, known as la alondra de la frontera "the lark of the border" , makes her first recording as a member of her family-based Cuarteto Carta Blanca.

During her fifty-year career, Mendoza will receive wide recognition, becoming in the first Texan to win the National Endowment for the Arts Heritage fellowship. Maud A. Fuller of Austin is elected president of the Woman's Baptist Convention of America and holds the office for forty years. She founds women's and youth groups. She loses. A Texas woman will not be elected to the U. Senate until The Salvatierra v. Del Rio Independent School District desegregation suit is the first official court challenge to the segregation of Mexican descent students in public schools.

Ruby and Leon Richardson found the black community newspaper, Houston Defender. State Representative Laura Negley of San Antonio sponsors a successful married persons' property rights bill that defines rent and revenues from separate properties of a married couple as community property. Black Presbyterian women in Houston organize scouting for black girls, the first such effort in the South. Thousands of people of Mexican descent are repatriated without due process.

Tejanas in Houston and San Antonio establish numerous social clubs whose mission is to uplift the entire Tejano populace economically, culturally, and socially. Johnson national director of the NYA , also tutors poor children as part of the escuelita movement created by Tejanas to educate poor Mexican-origin children during segregation. Clara Driscoll manages her family's extensive land and petroleum properties, doubling the value of the holdings, and is president of the Corpus Christi Bank and Trust. She also builds a lavish hotel there.

She later wins accreditation for the institution, thus becoming the first black female president of a senior college accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. In , she becomes the first Tejana to serve as president of the Texas Folklore Society. Dolores Burton Linton founds a school for poor black San Antonio children in an abandoned dance hall.

San Antonio women open the Ella Austin Orphanage for black youth. Singer Marian Anderson performs in Waco, where she stays with Dr. George and Jeffie Conner. Because of segregation, Anderson stays with host families when she visits Texas cities. Myra and J. The Houston Negro Little Theatre begins. Mildred "Babe" Didrikson , Beaumont, wins three Olympic medals, setting two world records. Ferguson is reelected governor. They work ten to 15 hours a day for as little as two to five cents an hour. Manuela Solis Sager organizes Tejano and Tejana field hands into unions and as strikers in Laredo onion fields.

Inez Prosser from Yoakum and Austin is one of the first black women to earn a Ph. Houston's Colored Carnegie Library opens. She organizes adult health classes, clinics, and classes for midwives. Hughes propose a bill to legalize jury service for women, but it fails. Hughes is voted the most valuable member of the legislature during her second term. She resigns when Governor James Allred appoints her the state's first female district court judge. Charlotte Graham and other Dallas garment workers strike leaders are jailed. Houston's Black Women for Social Change protest injustices against citizens.

Kate Ripley and her husband, George, friends of birth control crusader Margaret Sanger, found Texas's first family planning and birth control center in Dallas. Celia Lewin, far left, and friends, in a Dallas neighborhood, ca. Photo courtesy of Debra Winegarten. Minnie Flanagan and Marzel Hill begin a voter registration campaign for the league. Connie Yerwood is the first black physician employed by the Texas Department of Health. Texans Dr.

Mary Elizabeth Branch and Jeffie O. The Texas chapter will not do so for another twenty years. Emma Tenayuca leads a strike of 8,, San Antonio pecan shellers, mostly Tejanas, to protest meager earnings and sweatshop conditions. It is the largest labor walkout in Texas history up to this time. The Catechist Missionary Sisters of St. John Bosco are organized in Roma to serve Mexican public school children.

Black women's organizations work for the passage of a federal anti-lynching bill. World War II begins in Europe. Lulu B. Later, as a fieldworker and membership director, she is the first full-time salaried executive secretary of the organization and builds the Houston branch to the largest in the South. In the s and s, White and her co-worker, Juanita Craft of Dallas, organize dozens of branches throughout the state. She translates the state PTA newsletter into Spanish and writes articles for it.

Anna Dupree, a Houston beautician and philanthropist, provides seed money for a home for aged blacks. The Kilgore College Rangerettes launch and perfect half-time shows at football games. Edna Carter, a charter member of the San Antonio chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, leads a campaign of selective buying to gain more and better jobs for blacks. Eighty-five percent of Texas libraries owe their founding to the efforts of women's clubs. The nation experiences its first year with no lynchings.

Courtesy of the U. Elizabeth "Tex" Williams, Houston, is a photographer and photo lab technician for the U. Air Force. Photo courtesy of Janelle Dupont. Albertine Hall Yeager and her husband run a day care center in Galveston for children of mothers in war industries. Thelma Paige Richardson, a teacher, files a lawsuit against the Dallas school district, seeking equal pay for black teachers.

The action is settled out of court the following year with a judgment that grants pay raises to black teachers and leads to similar actions in Galveston and Houston. Black women also join the Army and Navy Nurses Corps. Allwright the U. Supreme Court outlaws Texas' "white primaries. Minnie Fisher Cunningham runs for governor against incumbent Coke Stevenson in a Democratic Party fight between liberals and conservatives over support for President Franklin D. She comes in second among nine candidates. Traveling by train from San Francisco to her home in Palestine, Texas, Dorothy Robinson is excluded from the dining car, while German prisoners-of-war are allowed to eat there.

Minnie Fisher Cunningham and Jane Y. Rainey, who was fired by the conservative board of regents. Maud Fuller of Austin secures land for a mission in Liberia. World War II ends. Many women leave factories and return to work as fulltime homemakers. Return to top — Sarah T. Hughes, state district court judge and former state representative, loses her campaign for the U. Congress to a conservative Dallas businessman who characterizes her as a "left-wing political terrorist. Senate debates the Equal Rights Amendment seriously for the first time, but fails to generate the majority required to send the amendment to the states for ratification.

Eve Currie is an instructor in Spanish and speech at the University of Texas, one of the first Tejanas ever employed to teach at the university. White is elected state director of branches for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Young Women's Christian Association chapters in Texas are integrated.

Black women picket the White House, protesting lynching. Margo Jones, who directed early works by playwrights Tennessee Williams and William Inge, promotes the concept of theater-in-the-round in Dallas. Her book, Theater-in-the-Round , inspires the establishment of professional community theaters around the U. This action is the legislature's response to the demand by blacks for admission to the University of Texas. Forum of Texas, a civil rights organization for Latinos. Women help raise funds through tamaladas tamale sales and later lead voter-registration drives and become lobbyists for equal-opportunity legislation.

She later opens a practice in Houston. Estelle Massey Osborne of Palestine is elected to the board of the American Nurses Association, the same year it admits black nurses. She is labeled a Communist for supporting the presidential candidacy of socialist Henry Wallace. She serves ten years in the House and another eighteen years in the Senate. Popular magazines like Collier's and Ladies' Home Journal call activism dangerous and urge women to devote themselves to home and family. Supreme Court rules in Sweatt v.

Painter that segregation in higher education is unconstitutional. It orders racial integration at the University of Texas Law School. Women make up 30 percent of the U. In Texas, Elzira Marie Shelton and her husband are the first black couple to buy a house in South Dallas. Although a bomb is thrown at the house, the Sheltons refuse to move. A female gospel group, the Chariottes, begins its career in Austin and later records for Houston's Duke Records. Evelyn Johnson begins managing the Buffalo Booking Agency, specializing in blues, soul, and rhythm and blues.

She remains director until Bette Graham of Dallas, a single mother and former secretary, invents Liquid Paper typewriter correcting fluid in her kitchen, using a Mixmaster. Thelma Patten-Law organizes the first Texas chapter of the Links, a service organization for black women, in Houston. Neither nominee joins her party's ticket.

Among southern black women, 87 percent have never voted. Annie Harris, president of the Houston branch, National Council of Negro Women, addresses the city council to condemn police brutality against a pregnant black woman. She graduates near the top of her class despite setbacks and lack of encouragement from school officials. Women gain the right to serve on Texas juries, largely through the efforts of the Texas League of Women Voters.

In Brown v. Board of Education the U. Supreme Court rules that "separate but equal" public schools are unconstitutional. Hermine Tobolowsky, Dallas attorney and legal counsel to the Business and Professional Women organization, and later the group's Texas president, begins an eighteen-year fight to pass the state Equal Legal Rights Amendment. Charlye O. Rosa Parks refuses to vacate her seat on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. The Attorney General of Texas tries to outlaw the Texas chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People on charges of barratry stirring up lawsuits and quarrels , putting Christia Adair, Houston National Association for the Advancement of Colored People executive secretary, on the stand for seventeen days.

A lawsuit is filed in federal court asking that black students Beneva Williams and Delores Ross be admitted to white public schools nearest their Houston homes. Mary's University in San Antonio; she is probably the first black woman to receive a law degree from a Texas university. Forum Women's Auxiliary is founded in Texas and the following year holds an important women's leadership conference. The program is an early model for Head Start, the federal preschool program begun in the s. She eventually organizes branches. Barbara Conrad, Pittsburg, is forced from her operatic role opposite a white male at the University of Texas because she is black.

She goes on to an international operatic career. Lucille Crawford is the founding president of the Black Austin Democrats. Lillian K. Maud Isaaks, El Paso, co-sponsors a state constitutional amendment supporting equal legal rights for women. It fails to pass, but her efforts receive national attention. Adelfa Callejo receives a law degree from Southern Methodist University, likely making her the first Tejana attorney in Dallas. President John F. Kennedy creates the President's Commission on the Status of Women; it supports equal legal rights for women without taking a position on the Equal Rights Amendment.

State District Judge Sarah T. Hughes is appointed to the federal bench, the first Texas woman to serve. Black women are admitted to Texas Woman's University. Collins Award for nonfiction from the Texas Institute of Letters. The Federal Equal Pay Act requires that women and men be paid equally for performing the same job. The publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique serves as a lightning rod for a widespread mood of personal dissatisfaction among white middle-class women. Supreme Court case to prohibit prayer in public schools. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas.

Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes administers the oath of office to Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, the first Tejana to hold such a post. Carolyn White becomes the first black employee at Houston's City Hall. The 24th Amendment to the U. Constitution outlaws the poll tax as a requirement for voting for president, vice president, presidential electors, and members of the U.

Congress passes the U. Civil Rights Act, outlawing racial discrimination in public accommodations and employment. Vilma Martinez, originally from San Antonio, plays a key role in the law's passage. Lera Thomas is the first Texas woman elected to the U. House of Representatives. She fills the seat of her deceased husband. Sam Houston in San Antonio. She was promoted to captain before leaving the military. Photo by Ralph Boatright or Andrew Schneider. Photo courtesy of Judith Jones Moore. Farm workers march from Rio Grande Valley to Austin to protest working conditions and to demand increased salaries; this is a catalyst for the Chicano movement in Texas.

Virginia Stull becomes the first black woman to graduate with a degree in medicine from the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. Barbara Jordan is the first African American woman elected to the Texas Legislature and the first African American elected to the Texas Senate in the twentieth century; she is the only female senator throughout her two terms Betty Friedan organizes the National Organization for Women. Among its twenty members are two black women, Jeffie O. Conner of Waco and Ada Anderson of Austin.

Dallas attorney Louise Raggio spearheads the reform of property rights laws to benefit Texas women, leading to the passage of the Married Women's Property Rights Act. For first time, women can buy and sell their own real property and securities. Kay Bailey is admitted to Texas Bar, but because most law firms do not hire women, she changes professions and becomes first female television reporter in Houston. She covers the Texas Legislature. Frances "Sissy" Farenthold, Corpus Christi, is elected to the Texas House; she is the only female representative during her two terms Wilhelmina Delco is the first African American to win election to the Austin school board.

Nixon to persuade the U. Congress to pass the Equal Rights Amendment. Shirley Marks of Tyler is admitted to Harvard Medical School and becomes the second black female student to graduate there. She later practices psychiatry at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Houston. After becoming widowed, Ninfa Laurenzo takes over Rio Grande Food Products in Houston and turns it into a multi-million-dollar operation. She later establishes Ninfa's, a highly successful Mexican restaurant chain. Late 's This period marks the beginning of Chicana feminism and a proliferation of women's publications, including poetry and political analysis.

Tigua women in Ysleta begin to serve on the tribal council. Aida Barrera creates and produces Carrascolendas , the nation's first national bilingual educational television program for Spanish-speaking children. Her work on the series brings her and Austin's local public television station housed on the University of Texas campus international awards. Some urban blacks begin celebrating Ramadan, an annual Islamic devotional period, and Kwanzaa, ceremonies to celebrate pan-African heritage and unity. One in every 25 high school girls goes out for sports in U.

Senate proceedings. Women's Bureau celebrates its fiftieth anniversary; the Labor Department reverses its opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment. Women help found La Raza Unida , a new political party. They also establish Mujeres Por La Raza , a women's caucus, within the party. State Rep. Frances "Sissy" Farenthold of Corpus Christi is the national group's first chair. State Sen. Barbara Jordan and State Rep. Lobbyists label her and twenty-nine supporters the "Dirty Thirty.

Congress, and the first African American member of Congress from Texas. She is only the second Texas woman elected to the U. House, but the first to be elected in her own right rather than to fill a husband's seat. Frances "Sissy" Farenthold runs unsuccessfully for governor; she is the first woman in U. At the Republican National Convention Anne Armstrong becomes the first woman in the history of either major party to give a keynote speech.

Citizenship Paths

These eight fiction pieces by the former East Germany's most discussed author contain insights that are sometimes blocked by a puritan, didactic tone. Naming their secret club after the fiery British leader, the young patriots in the Churchill Club committed countless acts of sabotage, infuriating the Germans, who eventually had the boys tracked down and arrested. Yellin, best known for her editions of the slave narrative of Harriet Jacobs, is fascinated by the Crafts book, but reserves judgment. Amerika entdeckt den Roman einer Sklavin aus dem Jahr Morality and wisdom dictate that we no longer discount the pain of our Asian-American brothers and sisters. George A. It is written in a highly romanticized, Gothic style that imitates such best-selling authors of the s as Charlotte Bronte and Charles Dickens, with shades of Horace Walpole, the 18th century creator of the Gothic novel.

Alma Canales runs for lieutenant governor on La Raza Unida ticket. The percentage of female delegates to the Democratic and Republican National Conventions increases dramatically, to 40 and 30 percent, respectively. Texas voters, by a four-to-one majority, approve the Equal Legal Rights Amendment to the state constitution. Constitution bans sex discrimination in education programs at all levels in the U. Las Hermanas , an organization for lay and religious Catholic women, is founded in Houston. Flutist Bobbie Humphrey, Dallas, is the first female instrumentalist to record for the Blue Note jazz label.

Houston native J. Franklin has her play Black Girl adapted for a feature film. The Mexican American Republicans of Texas is founded, amid growing interest in the party's social conservatism and concern that the Democratic Party takes Tejanos for granted. Wade , argued by Austin attorney Sarah Weddington, the U.

True Citizenship: A Question of Race

Supreme Court establishes a woman's constitutional right to an abortion. The Equal Rights Amendment passes both houses of Congress with wide margins of support. Through the efforts of State Reps. Women can obtain credit in their own names for first time. Lucy Patterson is first black woman elected to the Dallas City Council. The Texas chapter of the National Organization for Women is founded, and local chapters spread across the state.

Congress passes the Women's Educational Equity Act to foster the development of nonsexist teaching materials. Tejanas establish the Chicana Research and Learning Center in Austin to sponsor bilingual-bicultural projects, including publications and consciousness raising workshops for women. Frances "Sissy" Farenthold runs for governor a second time and is defeated. Barbara Jordan makes an impassioned speech about the U. Lorene Rogers, a chemist and nutritionist, is appointed interim president of the University of Texas at Austin, later serving as president from to , the first woman to head a major state university.

Kathlyn Gilliam, an African American, is elected to the Dallas school board. Circuit Court of Appeals guaranteeing the right to bilingual education for non-English speaking children. Anti-feminists try to pass a state resolution to rescind the Equal Rights Amendment introduced in the legislature, but a coalition of pro-Equal Rights Amendment groups defeats it. Estela Portillo Trambley , a nationally known Tejana novelist and playwright from El Paso, wins the Premio Quinto Sol, becoming the first woman and the last person to receive the prestigious national award for her short story collection Rain of Scorpions.

The conference outlines a ten-year plan to improve women's lives and leads to the United Nation's Decade for Women. Ann Richards is elected Travis County Commissioner. Barbara Jordan is the first African American and the first woman to deliver a keynote address at a Democratic National Convention. Anne Armstrong is appointed ambassador to Great Britain, the first Texas woman to hold an ambassadorship. Betty Lockhart founds the Dallas Committee on Household Employment to increase benefits for domestic workers.

In , she becomes a lieutenant colonel. In this unit study, students will learn the rights of a U. They will learn how to identify why those rights are denied to African Americans. Students will study the Constitution, the Preamble, and some Amendments to the Constitution that support citizenship. They will become familiar with the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation as they relate to citizenship rights.

Students will learn the meanings of liberty and citizenship. They will understand the different parts to the Constitution. The students will know that all native born people are citizens and deserve liberty. There are many rights afforded U. The Civil Rights Bill was ratified in Its purpose was to help people, who had been enslaved before the Civil War.

What is an American citizen? If you are born in the United States of America, then you are a true citizen. All African Americans who were born in the U. The debate about citizenship for the African Americans is on-going. In , the founding fathers agreed on a structure of government that was designed to preserve American liberty, so writes Linda Monk in the text, Words We Live By. It is also the freedom from captivity or slavery. The important questions about gaining liberty and citizenship rights for African Americans have yet to be answered.

The Constitution signed on September 17, , was the beginning of an experiment in liberty according to, Linda Monk. It would be the beginning of a new plan for how the U. It has three parts: the preamble, the articles, and the amendments. When the Constitution's Preamble begins with the phrase, "We, the People," to whom was the Constitution referring?

It was referring to the powers of the state and of the U. Government, when it was signed. The Constitution did not describe the rights of the people The Preamble states that, 'We the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Unites States of America.

Frederick Douglas, an orator, clarified his meaning of the Preamble in his speech criticizing the Dred Scott case. This case held the ides that African Americans-free or slave-could never be a citizen. Dred Scott, a slave, sued for him and his family's freedom in Missouri in Scott charged that he was free because his owner had taken him and his family into a free territory for a time. Fredrick Douglas stated that, ' We, the People' was referring to all people. He wrote that We, the People meant, "not we the white people — not we, the citizens, or the legal voters — not we, the privileged class, and excluding all other classes but we, the people; not we, the horses and cattle, but we the people — the men and women, the human inhabitants of the United States, do ordain and establish this Constitution.

In , the U. Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott because slaves were not legal citizens then; they had no standing in the courts. The Living Document - Because the Constitution was not perfect and was considered the living document, it needed to be changed or amended to list the rights of all citizens.

The delegates to the Constitutional Convention met behind closed doors and boarded windows so they could speak frankly. They debated whether enslaved people should be counted as part of a state's population. If slaves were born in this country, why should there be a debate about whether they are citizens? There are several reasons why. States with many enslaved people wanted them counted. States with fewer enslaved people disagreed.

Finally, the delegates agreed that three out of five slaves would be counted as a part of the state's population. Have African Americans received true citizenship in this country? African Americans are still fighting for their citizenship rights in America. After many challenges, the slaves needed something to ensure them rights as citizens. The Bill of Rights is comprised of the first ten Amendments to the Constitution, and are the rights guaranteed to protect the freedoms of all U.

It was ratified in The rights are real, but aren't applied equally. Even freed slaves often lacked the protection of the Bill of Rights. For this unit of study, the students will learn that the Northern and the Southern states clashed over the issue of Slavery When whites from the North agreed to stop slavery, the southern states that favored slavery, became enraged. Southerners ignored Abraham Lincoln's plea that the North were friend with the South and not enemies.

The moral issue of slavery tore the United States apart. The battle waged for four years. At the end of the battle, president Lincoln vowed to Americans, "that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom. Unfortunately, the slaves fought against each other, over the issue of Slavery. Fighting in the War did not give the African American citizenship rights. Many soldiers returned home from battle, and were still discriminated against.

Like the Constitution in its struggle to be ratified, it had little effect on the slaves and was not a law passed by Congress. It proclaimed freedom of the slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation, did not liberate the "Negro" in the 19 th century. Are there any amendments to the Constitution that proposed to give the African American true citizenship? The thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery and was ratified in Many slave-owners from the south disregarded this amendment.

Amendment 14, passed in Section 1 states that, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law, which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any persons within its jurisdiction the equal protections of the laws Amendment Fifteen, Section 1, states that, "The rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or precious conditions of servitude.

These Amendments gave the African Americans hope for a better life. But the struggle continues for African Americans in their battle for true citizenship. There are cases in the twenty-first century that show that African Americans have not yet received true citizenship and fair treatments in America. There is the Rodney King case in Los Angeles where four police officers viciously beat him. An all white jury in Simi Valley, California, tried the officers. All four officers were acquitted of charges. Trayvon Martin was a seventeen-year-old African American youth.

As he walked through a neighborhood in Florida, he apparently got into an altercation with a twenty-eight year old white man, George Zimmerman, who was on community watch patrol. Travyon was unarmed. The patrol-volunteer fatally shot and killed Trayvon for no apparent reason. George Zimmerman was initially released with out charge, because he said that he acted in self-defense These cases described very dark moments in African American history that must be narrated for present and future generations to learn from. The class will read a required fifth-grade book, The Watsons Go to Birmingham Ironically, he uses patriotic colors to describe their dresses: red, white, and blue, like the American flag.

This is a poignant contrast to the pointless crime that just happened, that wasn't patriotic. It was inhuman. The students will learn that the hatred of southern whites caused them to bomb the church and killed four little black girls. The Southern Whites who killed those children were protesting against integration. Students will read a book, read articles, or peruse the Internet to research the topic on what was their journey to citizenship. The student and their families will complete a questionnaire to learn more about their individual paths to citizenship.

Each book description is listed in the Annotated Bibliography. Before every lesson, the students will listen to several read aloud - with pictures books. This book explains the rights and privileges promised to all Americans in kid-friendly language. The book, Molly Bannakay , also a picture book, is about a white girl who was exiled from England and was sentenced to work as an indentured servant. After working for her freedom, she claimed some land and bought a slave, from the auction block, to help her take care of her land. She later married him.

They had four daughters, and the oldest daughter had a son, Benjamin Banneker, a renowned scientist and mathematician. Coolie is a picture book story about two Chinese immigrant boys who came to America to help build the great railroad across the west. They, like the African Americans, were bullied and treated harshly because of their race. The bosses called them "coolies" or lowly workers. They teased them about their clothes, hair and eyes. Angel Child, Dragon Child, by Michele Maria Surag, is about a girl from Vietnam, who does not like her American school and shares her unique experiences in coming to America.

The story will also help English learners as well as other students identify with how a newcomer feels in a new place. It is about letters Barack Obama wrote to his daughters, giving tribute to thirteen Americans and their ideals that have shaped America. This narrative selection has been organized for teachers to find the chronology of sessions and narratives that were studies in the national seminar. Professor Jonathan Holloway arranged each seminar with a specific focus that we researched and discussed in each class. I used the same order for introducing only some narratives that will be new voices for my students.

These African American scholars' contributions to the on-going struggle to citizenship rights for African Americans, in particular, and for all people in general, will be noted in this section of the unit. The intellectual abilities and accomplishment of the scholars of these periods are noteworthy, amazing, and extremely inspiring. Frederic Douglass , a former slave, was a very influential leader among African Americans. Frederic Douglass escaped from slavery and became a prominent abolitionist who spoke out boldly against the unfair treatment of African Americans.

During this time of slavery and abolitionism, he gave speeches about how wrong America was to treat Blacks like brutes, dogs, and to sell them at auctions. He told America that it was inhuman. He continued to state that without Freedom, liberty is a mockery. Martin R. Delany , a Black nationalist, of Mandingo decent, believed in racial separation as a means to gain citizenship for Blacks. He was an educator, physician, African explorer, political candidate, author, and journalist.

He opposed the strategies to moralize and speculate blacks' freedom. He stood firmly for the Blackman lifting himself up and taking responsibility for his family. He felt that the African American would never be given equal rights. He stated, "Until colored men, attain to a position above permitting their mothers sisters, wives, and daughters, to do the drudgery and menial offices of other men's wives and daughters; it is useless, it is nonsense, it is pitiable mockery, to talk about equality and elevation in a society.

John Rock — an abolitionist, physician, and political analyst. In , he was the first African American to speak before the Supreme Court on racial issues. His appeal was for whites to respect blacks. He had so much race-pride that he did not want White men to help the Negro. His position was, "Whenever a colored man is elevated, it will be by his own exertions.

Rock wanted the doors of equality and citizenship to be opened for the African Americans. He said to his audience, 'hasten the day of general emancipation. Edward Wilmot Blyden — , was the first Negro to support Pan-Africanism, and encouraged blacks to migrate to Liberia in the late s. Blyden felt that the Negro needed to go back to Africa, a place of their fathers, and a place for larger opportunities and greater achievements.

Alexander Crummell was born in New York, a trained Episcopal priest. He fought for citizenship for Blacks by refusing to join the Diocese of Pennsylvania because of racial issues. He is known for establishing the American Negro Academy in , a first black scholar-society in America. Part of his narrative for the solution to the race problem was amalgamation or absorption. He said that the Jews in America are sufficient for themselves. So are the Germans, the Italians, the Irish, and so are the African Americans sufficient for themselves.

He used idioms in rural black settings. Anna Julia Cooper was a Black scholar, intellectual, writer, and educator. She taught high school mathematics for thirty-nine years in Washington, D. One of the burgeoning feminist thinkers, she was a humanitarian. She said that this is the time for woman- all the departments in the new era are to be hers. She appealed to women to be intelligent and informed about all the movement of their time, because they have a lot to offer this society.

She states that the race to fairness is for the hopefulness and elasticity of the youth. All its achievements are before it. Ida B. Wells was a crusader for justice, a teacher and journalist. She was born in Mississippi during the Civil War. She co-owned a newspaper in Memphis, Tennessee.

In , white racists destroyed her printing press. She led campaigns against lynching or mob murder. Booker T.


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Washington was self-educated, devised a plan for African Americans. The plan was for them to become be self-sufficient. At that time, he didn't believed in integration. Many White southerners were against integration anyway. He wanted to find a way to teach blacks how to become economically sufficient, but some Black and prominent leaders disagreed with his plan. They felt that what Booker T. Washington asked for wasn't enough.

They felt that he was too passive in his approach to receive equal rights and citizenship. His plan, some called the Atlanta Compromise. Washington founded the Tuskegee Institute in Atlanta, a black vocational and agricultural school. William E. DuBois — a black intellectual of the twentieth century disagreed with Booker T. Washington on his plan on civil rights. DuBois wanted full equality in America, and now. He wanted full rights that the Constitution declared. In , he and several African American intellectual initiated the Niagara movement.

It began with the declaration of principles. Among other things, the Niagara movement demanded: access for health care, high quality, all rights that were denied blacks. Riots, lynching, Jim Crow were the order of the day. The principles of the movement, basically said to America, enough is enough. Claude McKay fought against racial atrocities.

By the end of World War l, white racism, lynching, destroying homes, schools and churches ran through the Black neighborhoods like a wild fire out of control. McKay used poetry to express his outrage. His famous poem, "If We Must Die," expressed his rage with the message of fighting back. He fought for the working class and poor blacks.

Garvey spread his Pan-Africanism beliefs in the black communities.